Aluminium radical the high speed cutting of composite material

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Metallic radical composite material (Metal Matrix Composites, MMC) have smaller than intensity and taller than modular quantity, high temperature resistant, wear-resisting caustic, hot coefficient of expansion wait for superior integral performance, use metallic radical composite material replaces steel, aluminium alloy or titanium alloy data, can rise to decrease significantly heavy, add fast, improve fuel efficiency, reduce exhaust emission, reduce make defend cost and the action that improve sex of component structure craft, mix in empennage of wing of lamina of aviation engine turbine, plane, landing gear, missile in recent years housing, be used to guides platform, electron is enclosed, the applied demand of the respect such as car component is very pressing [1-2] . Composite material belongs to aluminium radical typical metal base composite material, main component enhances aluminium radical for successive fiber composite material and grain enhance aluminous metal base composite material. In recent years, grain enhances aluminium radical composite material solved successive fiber to enhance metallic radical process of composite material preparation complex, craft immature, cost is exorbitant wait for a problem, manufacturing cost is reduced greatly, grain already was diverted to enhance aluminium radical stage by stage on international on the research of composite material, each country increases gradually to its demand. Although grain enhances aluminium radical the integral performance of composite material is superior, but its are low plasticity, in microcosmic the inhomogenous sex that go up and exceed what hard pottery and porcelain adds wild phase to join make its be hard to cutting treatment. Reduce aluminium radical for utmost ground mental allowance of composite material cutting, the method that researcher tries to pass close clean figuration makes aluminium radical composite material spare parts, but fall in more circumstance or cannot satisfy a spare parts to ask, be necessary to be opposite so composite material begins metallic radical cutting processability research of the system. From 1985 Burn [3] publishs the 1st to concern the paper that composite material cutting processes aluminium radical to begin, already had time of nearly 30 years up to now, domestic and international scholar enhances aluminium radical to grain during the cutting of composite material began many experiment research. Composite material is in aluminium radical cutting tool durability basically exists in cutting treatment efficiency of difference of quality of short, surface, production low, finished cost is advanced problem [4-5] , the high speed cutting that how begins efficient, low cost becomes the research heat of attention. The choice of cutting tool material and its adaptability enhance aluminium radical in grain in the cutting treatment of composite material, because enhance the hardness of the photograph to compare high-speed steel normally tall, compare hard alloy and cutting tool of coating of a few pottery and porcelain even tall, so these cutting tool are in cutting wear rate of the cutting tool when this material is extremely high. Domestic and international scholar uses all sorts of material cutting tool to enhance aluminium radical to grain composite material undertook many cutting experiment studies, the result makes clear, PCD cutting tool because the characteristic such as its tall hardness, wearability and low chemical endophilicity has made cutting aluminium base the cutting tool material of composite material first selection [5-12] . Hard alloy cutting tool is in cutting is aluminous base wear rate of its cutting tool is higher in composite material process, if be in higher cutting rate (V>350m/min) next cutting are aluminous base when composite material, hard alloy cutting tool proclaims namely inside a few seconds invalidation [13-14] , think commonly, cutting of this kinds of cutting tool is aluminous base the cutting speed when composite material should be restricted in 300m/min less than [15-22] . Xu [23] chooses fine grain hard alloy, pottery and porcelain, CBN and PCD 4 to plant the aluminium with the typical to 2 kinds cutting tool with cutting good performance base the cutting processability of composite material undertook study, discover treatment is jumbly enhance aluminium radical when composite material, of PCD cutting tool wear away resistance is the greatest, it is the good stuff of finish machining, and treatment fiber enhances aluminium radical when composite material, the wear rate of cutting tool of fine grain hard alloy integrality of surface of low, workpiece is good and finished cost lowest; Gave out to machine different metal at the same time base the material of optimal cutting tool of composite material. Tomac [the TiN of the methodological preparation of deposit of gas phase of 14] benefit chemically, TiCN and Al2O3 coating cutting tool undertook cutting experiment studies, research shows TiN coating cutting tool has best cutting tool life. Manna and Bhattacharya[15] use the stability that forms in cutting process to accumulate bits tumour to protect cutting tool in order to improve the life of hard alloy cutting tool. Form sediment of chemical gas phase is accumulated (CVD) of diamond coating cutting tool hind cutting tool of PCD of prep above of knife aspect wear rate [6] , the discovery such as D Errico increases the coating ply of CVD diamond cutting tool to be able to improve its cutting performance, coating is thick the CVD diamond cutting tool of 500 μ M can be rivalled with PCD photograph [6, 24] . Compare with photograph of cutting tool of coating of high-speed steel, TiN, hard alloy, CBN and grain of cutting of PCD cutting tool enhance aluminium radical better adaptability is shown when composite material, CBN replaces cutting tool to use in what PCD can serve as below certain condition [25] , but when Ibrahim Ciftc[26] considers to make clear the SiCp/Al composite material that is 110 μ M when cutting carborundum granularity, blade of cutting of CBN cutting tool and point of a knife appear serious damaged, below this condition unsuited choose CBN cutting tool to undertake cutting is machined. Normally the condition falls, PCD is the wearability with be had better, taller than PCBN rupture intensity and lower stick together sex, show better cutting performance than PCBN cutting tool thereby [12] . To improve the appearance surface roughness is mixed reduce inferior exterior injury, aluminium radical increases in grain of high speed cutting in all sorts of cutting tool material of composite material, PCD has better applicability, the cutting tool material that makes first selection consequently [9, 12, 27-28] . Cutting force and cutting temperature Xu [the research of 23] makes clear as a result, cutting of material of 4 kinds of cutting tool is aluminous base when composite material, cutting force increases along with the addition of cutting speed. Manna [15] is used not coating hard alloy, right inside limits of cutting speed V=20~225m/min Vol.

15%SiCp/Al undertakes turning experiments working, the result makes clear, advocate cutting force is reduced along with the accretion of cutting speed (change from 220N 135N) , mix along with feed cut deep accretion and increase (change from 125N 170N) . The research such as El-Gallab[5] discovers, cutting force is mixed along with cutting speed cut deep increase and reduce, research thinks the possibility is created. Lin [cutting tool of 9] use PCD is V=300 respectively in cutting speed, 500, undertook to SiCp/Al turning experiments below 700m/min. The result makes clear, as the addition of cutting tool wear extent, advocate cutting force and feed fight force to be in respectively 185N and 90N less than; Below condition of identical cutting speed, cutting force adds as the addition of feed; Below identical feed condition, cutting force changes as the addition of cutting speed very small. Pramanik [29] was based on wheat Qiante model to build forecast cutting aluminium base the mechanical model of composite material, the force in thinking cutting is machined comes from force of the deformation force that cut bits, plough, grain broken force 3 respects. El-Gallab, Sklad[10] built a model of economic three-dimensional cutting tool, place of the cutting tool when be being used at forecasting cutting SiCp/Al suffers stress, temperature and wear away; The result shows highest cutting temperature is located in on cutting blade and the knife before the edge faces li of temperature to be reduced gradually, increase cutting temperature to reduce along with feed speed; Because PCD has taller thermal conductivity, the cutting temperature of PCD cutting tool under cutting tool of TiN, Al2O3. Chou, Liu[30] uses SiCp/Al of cutting of cutting tool of CVD diamond coating, measured the cutting temperature below different cutting condition, reach cutting speed is the main factor that affects cutting temperature, undertake emulation test and verify with ANSYS, obtained better consistency with test result. Bian Weiliang [31] is considering feed of milling rate, every tine, radial integratedly to cut wide and strengthen photograph put oneself in another's position composite material of SiCp/2009Al of milling of high speed of PCD cutting tool was built on the foundation of the element such as cent comparing cutting force forecasts a model, this model is right of milling force forecast precision taller. Lu Jiechi [32] is used embed the method that buries artificial thermocouple to undertake to SiCp/Al composite material turning experiments, before studying each cutting parameter is right, hind the influence of knife face, contrasted 4 kinds of cooling conditions (dry type cutting, reduce air wind cold, oily fluid is pouring with MQL) the cutting temperature below. Temperature of the cutting tool below 4 kinds of conditions by arrive high low ordinal for: Dry cut, wind is cold, oily cold, MQL, do temperature of face of the knife before cutting a condition to fall under hind knife face. Ge Yingfei [the research that 33-34] used composite material of SiCp/2009Al of mill of high speed of PCD cutting tool to begin cutting force and cutting temperature, graph 1[33] wears away for cutting tool the dynamic milling force when initial stage, the peak value of radial load Fy has exceeded 1300N, cutting vibration is more acuteness. Consider to make clear, cutting force is reduced as the addition of cutting speed, the cutting force accretion as feed speed or cut reduce and increase greatly; Enhance phase system high to cent is compared and enhance photograph dimension smally to have greater cutting power; T6 heat treatment can increase cutting power significantly; Use cutting fluid can reduce cutting force greatly. Graph 2[34] is model of SiCp/Al of high speed milling curve of signal of temperature pyroelectricity situation, the line including sth resembling a net of all wave crest in the curve represents cutting arc district (or the cutting blade part that shares cutting) instantaneous temperature changes, choose temperature of cutting arc area (namely the line including sth resembling a net of wave crest) highest value regards milling as temperature, graph 3[34] is calibrational curve of SiCp/Al- constantan thermocouple. Consider to make clear, milling temperature can amount to 580 ℃ above, material of cutting parameter, cutting tool, workpiece material and cutting tool wear away condition has distinct effect to cutting temperature, and the impact of appearance of cutting tool geometry is less. Cutting parameter affects rate to cutting temperature by arrive greatly small ordinal be: Cutting speed, strengthen grain put oneself in another's position cent comparing, radial cuts feed of wide, every tine. As cutting parameter, enhance grain body cent to compare / dimension, PCD brilliant granuality and cutting tool tatty increase, cutting temperature is remarkable and elevatory. In cutting parameter same condition falls, the aluminium of heat treatment of T6 of high speed milling base when composite material, cutting temperature drops significantly. Nextpage cutting tool wears away to wait with Li Dan of cutting tool durability [milling cutter of hard alloy of 35] use K10 is doing type the high speed in undertaking to Al2024/SiCp composite material below the condition (1000~1800r/min) milling, the experiment makes clear, face of the knife after the invalidation form of the cutting tool in machining a process basically is wears away and collapse blade 2 kinds of forms, enhance particle size to have main effect to the invalidation form of cutting tool. Ge Yingfei [cutting tool of 36-37] use PCD undertook high speed milling to SiCp/Al composite material, the result demonstrates the high frequency score that enhances grain carborundum and impact is to bring about grind bead to wear away (graph 4 (A) ) , cutting tool grain falls off (graph 4 (B) ) , collapse blade (graph 4 (C) ) , flake (graph 4 (D) ) . Micro-crack of matrix of PCD cutting tool (graph 4 (E) ) because cutting high volume distributes several workpiece material,generation is, composite material of classics heat treatment or the put together cooperation that vibration of grain concussion, cutting and thermal shock strengthen when using very high cutting rate are used. Arise ceaselessly and fall off what bits tumour accumulates when dry cutting the phenomenon makes felt of cutting tool happening wears away (graph 4 (F) , 4 (G) , the aluminous element in workpiece material and cupreous element have fixed rate to the middle of cutting tool diffuse, below the action of copper coin element, cutting tool produced slight graphitization to wear away (graph 4 (H) , 4 (I) . Enhancing grain bulk mark is tatty of influence cutting tool the most remarkable element, enhance grain of material of condition of heat treatment of material of particle size, workpiece, cutting tool dimension and cooling condition wear away to cutting tool have distinct effect. In cutting parameter cutting speed is opposite the effect of cutting tool durability is the most distinct, take second place of every tine feed. The surface roughness that machines the surface and quality wear away to cutting tool have remarkable sensitivity. The research that wait still makes clear Nextpage Ge Yingfei, the cutting tool durability of composite material of SiCp/Al of cutting of high speed of PCD cutting tool exceeds 150min (grind blunt standard VB=0.

1mm) , and hard alloy cutting tool in cutting wear extent of face of the knife after 3min hind exceeds 0.

35mm (graph 5) . Lin [9] considers to discover, the cutting tool durability of PCD cutting tool drops along with the addition of cutting speed and feed. DErrico [24] use PCD and CVD cutting tool are to 359/SiC/20p composite material below cutting speed V=500m/min undertake turning contrast experiments, discovery is in feed is lesser (0.

1mm/r) when, thick film CVD (500 μ M) the cutting tool durability of cutting tool and PCD cutting tool is 600min and 950min respectively, but increase in feed 0.

When 4mm/r, thick film (500 μ M) the cutting tool durability of CVD cutting tool and PCD cutting tool is 32min and 1080min respectively, the result makes clear the addition as feed, the quickness of cutting tool durability of cutting tool of thick film CVD drops, and the change of cutting tool durability of PCD cutting tool is not big. High speed cutting cuts bits to form a mechanism to study Pramanik to wait [38] is in to SiCp/Al composite material the configuration cutting bits when cutting speed V=400m/min began research, discover feed is 0.

Bits is cut when 025mm/r smallish show and irregular appearance, the addition as feed (0.


1mm/r) , cut bits to lengthen and submit helix shape and linear form, increase feed further (0.


4mm/r) , cut bits to shorten and submit C form. But when cutting aluminium alloy, as feed or of cutting speed increase the appearance that cut bits to did not produce apparent change. Division account and discontinuous cutting bits is cutting aluminium base the pattern cutting bits with the most familiar composite material [38-39] . Quan Yanming [the sleave of the forming machine that cut bits that 40] enhances metallic composite material to hard fragile grain exhibited research, clip of discovery aluminous matrix wraps grain to enter after cutting area of wind shear form, have be not directional and successive slippage, edge to cut face clipping, basic stable slippage 3 kinds are out of shape form. In addition, cut corner cannot general and analytic law has a budget, can obtain experience value through the experiment only. Ge Yingfei [41] is right when milling of high speed of SiCp/Al composite material cut bits to formed a mechanism to begin research, the result makes clear, cut bits to be shown on the whole irregular be not successive form dentately (graph 6(a) ) , surface of the freedom that cut bits has aperiodic of the gender cut crackle outspread to the interior that cut bits (graph 6(b) ) , the first cut an area (graph 6 (C) ) and cut bits (graph 6 (D) ) in existence is many small hole and micro-crack. These small hole and micro-crack are increasing mostly form all round grain, minority is formed in aluminous matrix, their direction is out of shape with material direction agrees basically (graph 6 (D) . Consider to make clear, the formation of small hole and micro-crack and patulous to SiCp/Al composite material cut bits to form a process to have main effect. Consider to still make clear, the formation that SiCp/Al composite material is cutting bits cuts horn to not be calm value in the process, there is the tendency of indentation on configuration thereby. When cutting SiCp/Al composite material, cutting matrix of area of wind shear form always is clip is wrapping broken carborundum grain undertaking be harmonied inhomogenously is out of shape (grain happening rotates) , slippage (include the slippage between a large number of crystal boundary, phase boundary) direction often changes. The plasticity of matrix of SiCp/Al composite material that uses as a result of experiment place grain of good, carborundum is petty and bulk mark is not high, reason aluminous matrix is similar to in the slippage that cuts area of wind shear form blame enhance a metal, can compare steadily directional slippage continuously, but the matrix near grain still has local particle to be out of shape inhomogenously, make thereby of material be out of shape streamline is unsharpness (graph 6 (C) . For all that, the tendency that enhance grain or edge stuff cuts direction of wind shear shape to flow (graph 6 (E) . Consider to make clear, milling of high speed of SiCp/Al composite material cuts bits configuration to be inhomogenous dentate, enhance condition of heat treatment of material of grain bulk mark, workpiece to wait to have distinct effect to cutting bits to form; The trends of hole and micro-crack is formed and expanding is the main mechanism that cuts bits to form, the heat insulation that cuts bits to form a process to still accompany certain level is cut. Pramanik of exterior integrality research [38] undertakes to alloy of SiCp/6061Al composite material, 6061Al cutting contrast experiments, the exterior surface roughness that discovers the 6061Al below low feed speed is taller than SiCp/6061Al, but be more than when feed 0.

The circumstance when 03mm/r produced change however. Inside the cutting speed limits of the experiment, 6061Al is worth than the exterior surface roughness of SiCp/6061Al tall. The treatment surface of composite material did not discover feed mark, cutting speed does not have apparent effect to machining exterior surface roughness. El-Gallb [the research of 42] makes clear, when cutting SiCp/Al composite material, already machined the surface to be in of carborundum grain all round available hole arises and accompany those who have grain to pull out, rupture and broken, the grain that pulls out in treatment already was machining the surface to procrastinate move cause cut as a result to form groove to its, already machined exterior surface roughness to be reduced along with the accretion of feed speed, negative before horn brings about big exterior surface roughness. Wu Zhenyu [composite material of SiCp/Al of milling of high speed of cutting tool of coating of 43] use TiAlN, the result makes clear, raise milling rate to make vibration apparent increase, surface roughness of apparent increase, surface also increases treatment surface blemish significantly. Ge [the research of composite material of SiCp/Al of milling of high speed of cutting tool of 44] use PCD makes clear, exterior surface roughness subsequently the addition of knife face wear extent and increase significantly, if pursue,7 are shown. Wear away in the initial stage of cutting tool level, the exterior surface roughness of SiCp/Al composite material is inferior (Ra is about 0.

207 μ M) , in the factor that affects exterior surface roughness, the bulk mark influence that gains wild phase is the greatest, cutting speed take second place, feed rate is the minorrest. Nextpage Ge Yingfei [41] considers to make clear, milling of composite material high speed already machined aluminium radical the surface makes the cutting ripple that basically comprises generation of place of feed of cutting tool cycle, and the hole hole that in enhancing grain purify process, produces, micro-crack, matrix is torn off, Tu Fuhe is protuberant wait for blame cutting tool to cut an element directly. When high speed cutting, as a result of cutting force temperature of bigger, cutting is higher, the workpiece material that point of a knife handles produces plasticity to expand apparently and along point of a knife two side plasticity flows. Be out of shape as a result of material when high speed cutting inhomogenous, cut horn to fluctuate inside certain limits, cause cutting to be not stabilized thereby, in treatment the surface forms apparent Zhen Wen (graph 8) . Consider to still make clear, cutting dosage, enhance grain body cent to compare / size of grain of material of dimension, cutting tool, cooling means and condition of workpiece heat treatment are right treatment surface is formed have distinct effect. Cent of more expensive system compares cutting when composite material, treatment surface includes more small hole holes, micro-crack and matrix to tear off etc make an element. Below higher cutting rate, enhance grain to be cut off or former a case that presses is clear increase. Same system cent compares cutting when composite material, enhance particle size bigger, the hole hole that machines exterior remain is bigger, deeper, and matrix is torn off and oscillatory case is more severe. When use cooling fluid, in rinse action and huge centrifugal force action to fall, cut bits to reach drossy by be taken away by cooling fluid, enhance grain thereby or drossy be pressed into the opportunity that already machined the surface to decrease greatly afresh by cutting tool. When the PCD cutting tool that uses lesser grain, the hole hole amount that processes exterior remain decreases, because right now cutting tool blade grinds quality,this is life of better, cutting tool is longer. Ge Yingfei [45] considers to discover, not deepness of layer of sclerosis of matrix of surface of treatment of heat treatment material is 30~35 μ M, and deepness of layer of sclerosis of matrix of surface of treatment of heat treatment material is 15~20 μ M (graph 9) . By the graph 9 still can see, machine sclerotic and highest value to machine place of M of exterior 10~15 μ in the distance. On last word put together knowable, be aimed at aluminium radical the research of respect of cutting of composite material high speed basically is centered in appearance of the cutting tool choice, form that cut bits, cutting tool to wear away, the respect such as force of exterior integrality, cutting and cutting temperature. Numerous research makes clear, with aluminium of cutting of high speed of PCD cutting tool base when composite material, can acquire better exterior quality, temperature of taller cutting tool life and lesser cutting force, cutting. In recent years, metallic radical is the high speed of composite material, efficient, accurate cutting is paid close attention to generally, but the place that existence becomes independent to contradict even each other between the conclusion that a lot of relevant research reach, project application value is finite, still need to increase the model is built in cutting tool life, exterior surface roughness is forecasted, cutting parameter is optimized, database of high speed milling and the research strength that the expert is the respect such as all. Cutting of high speed of PCD cutting tool is aluminous base composite material, can raise treatment effectively to purify of exterior quality, material is led and reduce finished cost, but cutting of high speed of PCD cutting tool is aluminous base the mechanism when composite material is still ambiguous, require further thorough research. In addition, be aimed at metallic radical at present the research of cutting of composite material high speed is confined to aluminium radical composite material, to what develop recently the research of composite material related side returns titanium radical to did not appear in the newspaper, because this data will come,hopeful replaces titanium alloy or alloy of nickel radical high temperature in the domain such as aviation engine, also appear to the research of processability of cutting of its high speed and mechanism respect thereby should mix again particularly pressing. CNC Milling