Aviation engine fan / the development of technology of aggrandizement of concussion of compressor lamina laser and application

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Laser pounds aggrandizement (Laser Shock Peening, LSP) technology is the bow wave that uses generation of strong pulse laser, a kind of innovation that introduces remains to press stress from component surface and the most popular exterior aggrandizement technology. The deep 5~10 that the remains that this technology forms in component surface presses stress deepness to be handled than aggrandizement of groovy gush bolus times, have rise combat fatigue strength, lengthen exhaustion the life, formation that restrains crackle and patulous, rise fight jiggle exhaustion / fight wear away / fight stress to corrode rupture the characteristic such as character. Through old development and research, the United States applies successfully at aviation engine fan at pounding laser aggrandizement technology 1997 / compressor lamina, the content outside raising its substantially to fight mars ability and performance of tall loop exhaustion, and 1998 magazine of American research and development is judged be complete beauty one of 100 the mainest advanced techniques, be maintained to be one of 80 crucial technologies of engine of the 4th acting battleplan by American army. Since 2003, this technology applies F119 engine to wait for leaf of whole of compressor of high pressure of engine of the 4th acting battleplan again dish on, on the component such as the aviation engine turntable that studying application enters area hard at including laser at present [1-4] . Laser pounds the principle of technology of aggrandizement technology principle and aggrandizement of characteristic laser concussion, it is to use short pulse (second of a few accept) the tie layer of Fu of besmear of surface of component of metal of powerful laser radiate (the water that is like flow) , besmear at metallic surface through restraining an effect the opaque coat of Fu (like adhesive plaster of black Qi Huo) , coat absorbs laser energy to produce volatile vaporization to evaporate, evaporating gas absorbs the rest laser to produce the plasma jet that expands quickly, demarcate generates the high-pressured bow wave that increases at high speed in the plasma jet between component surface and tie layer, bow wave arises " cold action " action travels upcountry at metallic surface, form be out of shape by plasticity caused remains presses stress [5-10] . Be handled more than when the peak value pressure of bow wave material trends succumbs when intensity, material surface layer does not produce sclerosis of meet an emergency, remain is very big stress, at the same time microcosmic organization produces very big change, improve data significantly fight fatigue, wear-resisting caustic and prevent stress to corrode character. Although as similar as aggrandizement of groovy gush bolus, technology of laser concussion aggrandizement also is to pass the surface in metallic component to produce beneficial remains to press what stress raises a part to fight exhaustion and be able to bear or endure injury is characteristic, but because introduce remains to press the method of stress,differ, the part that aggrandizement of bolus of gush of apparent excel convention handles the part that technical divisions of laser concussion aggrandizement manages. (1) the laser of type of high power pulse that laser pounds aggrandizement to use Ji Gongbao stone of neodymium glass, YAG commonly. The wavelengh that arises laser is 1.

054 μ M, pulse width is 8~40ns, pulse energy amounts to 50J, laser nods a diameter to be 5~6mm, power density is 5~10GW/cm2, groovy machining achieves this hard. (2) laser concussion aggrandizement basically uses high-pressured strength effect, have do not have infiltration or area of the contact of deposit pollution, blame, influence that do not have heat and aggrandizement effect are distinct wait for a characteristic. (3) the tall 10%~50 that the exterior hardness of the component after laser pounds aggrandizement compares groovy processing technique normally % , can acquire extremely fine sclerotic layer organization; Sclerotic layer deepness is 1~1 normally.

5mm, the sclerotic layer deepness of the part that handles apparently greatly at using gush bolus aggrandizement [6-7] . (4) laser concussion aggrandizement can make the fatigue life of the component apparent lengthen and fight fatigue intensity to rise. Processing of laser concussion aggrandizement and the 7075 that gush bolus aggrandizement handles - result of test of T7351 aluminous sample makes clear, the fatigue life of the component after laser pounds aggrandizement to handle lengthens level of a volume, fight fatigue intensity to raise 30%~50% . (5) the stability that laser pounds aggrandizement to be able to raise high temperature to issue leftover stress. The influence that the Ti8Al1V1Mo leftover stress that high temperature handles to laser concussion aggrandizement releases. The result makes clear 4h hind is exposed below high temperature, its remains stress did not restore. INCONEL718, Ti6Al4V a few otherer data also presents similar result after laser pounds aggrandizement to handle. (6) the intensity of tall loop exhaustion that laser pounds aggrandizement to be able to lengthen a component apparently, if pursue,1 is shown. (7) range of application of laser concussion aggrandizement is wide. Its are opposite not only alloy of alloy of all sorts of aluminium alloy, nickel radical, stainless steel, titanium, cast-iron and pulverous metallurgy all have favorable aggrandizement effect, still can use the spirit that arouses beam of light to decide a processing a few place that suffer geometrical appearance to restrain and cannot undertake gush bolus is handled (wait like small chamfer, alveolus and contour line) . Consequently, this technology applies extensively at aviation industry, car to make, wholesome, ocean carries medical treatment to wait for a domain with nuclear industry. (8) laser concussion handles can local to the surface district to undertake pounding aggrandizement and can undertake directly in air, have pair of work measure, appearance to reach consequently located environmental suitability is strong, process is simple, control is convenient and wait for a characteristic neatly. The development of technology of laser concussion aggrandizement 20 centuries at the beginning of 70 time, the United States Battle institute (Battelle Memorial Institute) B.


The person such as Fairand uses the bow wave with revulsive laser of high power pulse to change the microstructure of 7075 aluminium alloy to organize first, in order to improve its machinery performance, opened from now on what pound aggrandizement application research with laser is prelusive. 20 centuries 90 time, technology of laser concussion aggrandizement got be developinged energetically with rapid development, the battleplan that is mixed to be versed in industry uses a few models in succession by American army / bomber engine and business use plane engine fan / compressor lamina and integral leaf dish on. Meanwhile, the member that world laser pounds the research of aggrandizement technology and applied person organizes an international laser 2 every years to pound aggrandizement technology seminar since 2008, the respect such as the experiment test and verify of the numeric imitate of the fundamental theory that pounds aggrandizement to laser, craft, craft, physical characteristic that causes by LSP condition undertakes be discussinged deep. These marks are worn technology of laser concussion aggrandizement more and more the attention that gets the world. 1 in fan / the application on compressor lamina and develop 20 centuries at the beginning of 90 time, the F101 engine that deserves to install B-1B bomber ruptures because of fan lamina caused grave flight accident for many times. Its reason, it is leading edge of lamina of fan of alloy of titanium of the 1st class is swallowed the hard exotic of engine is mauled, cause fatigue strength by the 75ksi of the requirement (518MPa) the left and right sides drops 20ksi (138MPa) the following, cause fatigue fracture then. To avoid the happening of this kinds of breakdown, personnel of air force ground service is in before every flight 25h mixes F101 engine to fly the 1st times everyday, undertake 1 times can discovering to all fan lamina 0.

The overhaul of 127mm crackle. 1994, to finish afore-mentioned examinations are mixed make sure B-1B bomber safety flies, air force was cost 100 when defending a person more, mix 1000 much dollars. December 1994, the United States is carried out formally " science and technology plans tall loop exhaustion " , the trouble of tall loop exhaustion that removes plane turbine engine in order to help. Regard this as the crucial technology of the plan, the component finishing technology such as laser concussion aggrandizement got be developinged energetically mixing test and verify. In the meantime, the production technology in American department of defense (ManTech) research plans to fall, GE company and technology of laser concussion aggrandizement (LSPT) company cooperation also develops laser to pound aggrandizement technology, in order to heighten the wear of lamina of titanium alloy fan and the sensitivity that reduce its to be injured to exotic. LSPT company undertook what fatigue to lamina of F101-GE-102 engine fan character affects gush bolus aggrandizement and laser pound aggrandizement above all study quite [5-7] . Fatigue test result (see a picture 2) make clear: Fiducial scatheless lamina is in 80ksi (552MPa) next is in 106 loops invalidation; The unsettled lamina that contains sunken mouth is in 20~30ksi (138~207MPa) next invalidation; The value of estimation of average invalidation stress of the lamina of aggrandizement of bolus of double strength in season is 35ksi(242MPa) ; The value of estimation of average invalidation stress of the lamina of aggrandizement of bolus of high strenth gush is 45ksi (311MPa) ; And the average invalidation stress of the takes sunken mouth blade of laser concussion aggrandizement is 100ksi(690MPa) , prep above does not have the invalidation stress of scathing lamina; Even the average invalidation stress of the lamina of the takes discharge treatment sunken mouth of laser concussion aggrandizement is 75~80ksi (518~552MPa) . Laser pounds intensity of aggrandizement component exhaustion to improve data to also make clear, with fiducial not photograph of lamina of fan of injury, unsettled is compared, have 6.

The fatigue intensity that the fatigue intensity after the laser of classics of lamina of F101 engine fan that 35mm cut injures pounds aggrandizement is equal to or prep above did not bear lamina of injury, unsettled. That is to say, the structural integrality of the fan lamina that laser concussion aggrandizement can restore to be damaged, make sure fan lamina is successive and work surely, have even the biggest to 6.

The exotic of 35mm injures the lamina of F101 engine fan of blemish to also can continue to use. Nextpage 1995 year, LSPT company receives the approval of air force, begin to develop laser of type of production to pound aggrandizement system. After the problem such as the mechanical design of casing of the choice that diagnoses in the optical position that settled laser, system, laser and electronic casing, LSPT company developed the system of laser of archetypal type of production that forms by laser room and processing chamber successfully. 1997, GE company introduced LSPT company design and 4 production laser to pound aggrandizement system, begin pair of F101 engine lamina of fan of the 1st class undertakes pounding aggrandizement. Generation reduces stress in the lamina of F101-GE-102 engine fan that pounds aggrandizement through laser (be aggrandizement of concussion of groovy gush bolus 4 times) , those who prevented crackle is initiative and patulous, came true by visual the examination replaces overhaul, saved greatly use with uphold charge. According to the report, use this one technology, air force can save 10 million dollar every year replace, repair with uphold charge, and save the engine cost of 40 million dollar as a result of the mortality engine breakdown that prevents the left and right sides about 42 times. Although gained huge success, but processing speed is mixed slow processing cost is high the promotion that two big inadequacy restricted laser to pound aggrandizement technology severely and application. Its reason includes the following at 2 o'clock: (1) Tu Fu and purify are opaque between the laser aggrandizement that coating is undertaking laser pounds aggrandizement outside undertake, pound for many times carry repeatedly with respect to need, cause labor intensity to grow with working hours greatly. (2) the area of one on top of another that the circle stimulates spot of beam of light is large (if want to come true 100% enclothe treat processing surface, the area of one on top of another that the circle stimulates spot of beam of light should be as high as 30% ) , increased to handle time. For this, the laser that studies a plan in ManTech pounds aggrandizement to divide research to plan to fall, LSPT company was developed durable beforehand the laser of type of production pounds a system. LSPT company is developed and test and verify the RapidCoaterTM system that by spray 4 measure make the special opaque coat, appearance that enclothes pulse of water film, emissive laser and purify and cleanness to want to handle the next time, make charge reduces 30%~40% , processing efficiency raises 4~6 times, and its compositive in laser aggrandizement system; Developed monitoring fast coating system is in the controller of quality of coating of coating of spare parts surface and monitor, in order to ensure reliable and consistent performance; Developed those who reduce laser Shu Guang to nod jackknife to be the special and optical device of rectangular spot by circular spot change; The control system that developed the as synchronous as coating craft, optical device that controls appearance of beam of light with connection of laser control system, directive to give out rectangular spot; Built include monitor of new laser controller, laser, semi-automatic aggrandizement, 2 economy of laser system but susceptive laser pounds aggrandizement. This raised technology reliability greatly, reduced process cost, improved stimulate energy of beam of light, time to distributing with the space. As ceaseless progress of the technology, the F110-GE-100 engine that laser concussion aggrandizement is reached to deserve to install F-16A/B battleplan by promotion application again, F110-GE-129 engine that distributes outfit F-16C/D, JSF120 engine that developing, F100-PW-220 engine that deserves to install F-15 battleplan, Trent800 engine that deserves to assemble 777 planes of Boeing, deserve to install Boeing. This one technology makes FOD tolerance raises 15 times, examining man-hour and charge decrease greatly, flight safety is improved apparently. According to the report, apply at F110-GE-100 and F110-GE-129 engine, uphold charge for what air force saved about a hundred 10 thousand dollars every year, and estimation prevented the engine breakdown of more mortality. To 2002, had saved 59 million dollar. Predict, in group of air force aircraft 1 billion dollar can be saved inside life period. Company of engineering of American metal surface (MIC) the company uses technology of laser concussion aggrandizement at the army and the people to use reaction engine blade in order to prolong its exhaustion life, not only the sex of on the safe side that raised aircraft engine, and every months but managing the aircraft upkeep cost of millions of dollars, managing the spare parts of millions of dollars changes charge. 2 in compressor whole leaf dish in the application on rotor and the project management development that develop the F119 engine that deserving to install F-22 battleplan, PW company discovers part of a historical period of whole of compressor of high pressure of the 4th class dish the problem that rotor existence combats exotic to injure tolerance abundant to spend apparent inadequacy. Want to satisfy the function requirement of F-22 battleplan, f119 engine leaf of whole of compressor of high pressure of the 4th class dish the door of rotor is restricted to be worth stress intensity factor to need to raise 3 times. If undertake redesigning, estimation needs the fee of above of 10 million dollar, and need longer time. This not only the development cost that raises F119 engine, more serious is the development plan that affected F-22 battleplan. For this, PW company decides to try to use laser to pound aggrandizement technology to process this one charge costly and the integral leaf with complex structure dish rotor, spend in order to raise the abundant that its fight exotic to injure tolerance. Because laser pounds aggrandizement technology,in the light of processing at first individual lamina is developed, this comes true with respect to need by processing individual lamina is expanded the integral leaf that handles complex structure dish the change of rotor. Above all, LSPT company and PW company decide new craft parameter together, fatigue experiment and manufacturing quality assure a program; Development applies to integral Xie Panchu to manage transparent with opaque coat. March 2003, LSPT company uses artificial besmear Fu the method of opaque coat, aggrandizement of travel laser concussion handles the Xie Panjin of whole of compressor of high pressure of the 4th class that begins pair of F119 engine [6, 11] . Of the same age, air force and PW company established value for F-22 battleplan the product line of laser concussion aggrandizement of 200 million dollar. Because be in,the automatic RapidCoater coating of LSPT company should use adhesive plaster law to complete type test, produce or use method of Fu of adhesive plaster besmear at first. To the end of Feburary 2005, LSPT company already to PW company delivery the whole of compressor of high pressure of the 4th class of the 96 F119 engine that pounds aggrandizement through laser leaf dish. After through laser concussion is handled, the fatigue strength that the damage with micro-crack and fatigue insufficient intensity hurts blade is 413.

7MPa, satisfy the design requirement of 379MPa completely. The jiggle exhaustion life of the ministry of blade wedge root that pounds processing through laser lengthens 25 times above at least. As a result of integral leaf dish geometrical form is complex, use adhesive plaster to besmear Fu law undertakes laser pounds aggrandizement, not only time-consuming long, and labor strength is great. For this, need undertakes a few more the following improve the work: (1) improve existing RapidCoater system, use prolate spray head, enter integral part of a historical period in order to go to the lavatory dish between the lamina that arranges cheek by jowl, will handle with this law like integral leaf dish the part with such complex structures. (2) in whole Xie Panji is pounded solely quality increases to control monitor between aggrandizement, compositive to whole Xie Panchong attacks aggrandizement inside; Find a place for stimulate system of calibration of energy of beam of light automatically. (3) for whole Xie Pangai takes the coat that applies at RapidCoater system. (4) the plant that builds demand of system of quality of contented PW company and processing program. Use RapidCoater system, in current laser repetition rate (0.

25Hz) next making that produce efficiency to raise 2~3 times; Use what study the development below the plan in ManTech to raise 1~2 of laser repetition rate the technology of times, make produce efficiency to rise further 3 times the left and right sides; Uphold charge through reducing, shorten shutdown time and improve craft efficiency, reduced laser to pound the charge of aggrandizement. Such, came true basically to make light intensity of Xie Panji of whole of compressor of high pressure of the 4th class turns F119 engine time is shortened by original 40h above the goal that reduces 50%~70% at least to original 1/9~1/6 and charge. 2004, technology of laser concussion aggrandizement is used at F119-PW-100 engine in great quantities leaf of whole of compressor of high pressure of the 4th class dish the production that waits for a component, what patulous still to F119 engine applying is other on rotor of compressor of high pressure of a few class, also apply on the JSF120 that atttacks battleplan jointly and JSF119 engine. To 2009, the Xie Pandou of whole of compressor of F119 engine high pressure of 75% passed laser to pound processing. The application of this one technology makes the maintenance of F-22 battleplan and F119 engine checks frequency to reduce 30%~50% , unit flight charge is reduced, the task prepares grade to rise apparently. The near future, in American NAV AIR the SBIR of the 2nd phase studies the project falls, LSPT company considered to use laser to pound aggrandizement to handle the area that like blade tenon chamfer such laser enters hard, with improving its jiggle wears away as fatigue as jiggle character [4] . Specific means is to reduce the dimension that stimulates beam of light, laser that uses similar motivation density to arise to reduce stress greatly, through closing division staff to will stimulate beam of light consign arrives processing gun. The fatigue lab that crosses an university in general uses Ti6Al4V lamina sample to wore away to undertake imitate with jiggle exhaustion circumstance to the jiggle between aviation engine lamina and tenon chamfer. The result makes clear, laser pounded aggrandizement to produce very good effect to exterior stress and leftover stress deepness, make fatigue life lengthens 20~25 times. The charge that its accrual includes to reduce laser system, reduce laser system occupy the ground is accumulated and increase the capacity that fights jiggle exhaustion. Of the last word ceaseless maturity as the technology and efficiency rise quickly, laser pounds aggrandizement general more apply in battleplan of for military use widely / bomber / helicopter engine and business use plane engine fan and compressor blade, outside making its are fought content injury ability rises greatly and life of tall loop exhaustion is apparent prolate at the same time, also can make its cost is reduced, pollution is reduced and produce efficiency to rise. Additional, laser concussion aggrandizement is expanding CH-47 transmits key of pipeline of lamina of structural member of plane of engine of tank of gear, M-1, KC-135, large turbine, hydraulic turbine and oil, car stage by stage the domain such as component. Consequently, its not only now is, and the popular technology that has development latent capacity greatly is remained inside very long in the future period of time. CNC Milling