1 what is meant by light we normally so called light, it is to point to by ultraviolet ray, visible light, the place such as down to infrared ray is comprised. Wavelengh relatively ultraviolet ray calls X line shortly, γ line, and wavelengh relatively infrared ray calls electric wave longly. All these floorboard, call electromagnetic wave commonly. Be electromagnetic wave solely so partially. Original name is the 2 English that what is meant by laser laser Light Amplification By Simulated Emission Of Radiation, abbreviation is LASER, its Chinese meaning is electromagnetic wave of by means of suffer the smooth enlarge that inspires generation ejaculation place, it is the quite important invention in latter-day and scientific research. Laser has sex of tall monochromatic of high power density, tall directivity reachs the 4 big good points such as tall coherence, reason popularizes application at medical treatment of research and development, communication, information, reach the domain such as industry, knowable laser not only can benefit mankind, and the whole that can promote relevant industry develops. The emissive principle of 3 laser is in microcosmos (the world with mechanical quanta) , individual atom or molecular place have energy (potential energy of kinetic energy ＋ ) (if the graph is shown 1 times) can be in only a series of discontinuous and the steady state of schism, among them the condition of energy lowest calls ground state (feebleminded condition) . Graph of 1 microcosmic particle can rank although microcosmic particle is in the ground state of lowermost energy commonly, but if have energy (hot, smooth, electron) by exterior when joining the microcosmic particle at ground state, microcosmic particle can be aroused, and move supreme energy condition (stimulate voice) . However this arouses condition and astatic, can have subsequently move the incline to to low energy condition. For example, when undertaking E1 → E0 is transferred, the meeting is redundant the energy of E0 of → giving E1. This redundant energy (E1 → E0) meeting change becomes Hv (H: Pu Lang overcomes constant, v: Smooth frequency) , namely so called photons or photon (not be all all change for light, become heat energy possibly also) . Be located in high-energy rank atomic, be stimulated because of sufferring solely and drop to ground state, shoot a stronger light consequently. This namely the fundamental that laser launchs. No matter laser is advancing direction or phasic all orderly and consistent. These ideas are by Einstein place is put forward at first. (if pursue 2) graph 2 suffer although be sufferred by the atom stimulating voice of a few,stimulate emissive process light stimulate and blast off come out, but the major atomic place that is consist in ground state however is absorbed, because this suffers,arouse the scale that shoot must the scale talent that prep above recruits makes laser blasts off. That is to say high-energy rank atomic (element) number wants relatively be located in feebleminded rank atomic (element) several (invert distributing) much. (if pursue 3) generally speaking this inverts if,distributing can if constant undertakes often, the laser that can produce successive vibration (for example He - Ne, argon, the laser such as carbon dioxide gas) . If if this inverts,distributinging to be able to come true for an instant only again, the laser that makes pulse oscillation (for example: The laser such as ruby, YAG, glass, nitrogen, pigment) . Drive is called to the movement that stimulates voice " take use " , it is to use discharge, smooth, electron beam, electric current, laser to wait commonly will undertake. But actually, to can get the light of high strenth, must use a setting the smooth lens at two side places laser emissive media at meantime, make suffer arouse shoot hereat ground of the move back and forth between 2 smooth lens undertakes (resonator) , the ability after generation gives strong light blasts off to exterior. Graph 3 invert distributing with calm constant the characteristic of 4 laser beam machining (1) is machined as electron beam same, treatment power density amounts to 107 W/ ㎝ 2 above, can machine diamond to reach exceed the hard fragile data such as hard alloy, thermal strain and material metamorphism are tiny. (2) report shoots smooth parallel sex good, its nod diameter to be in theoretic but colonies becomes 1 μ M the following, temperature is as high as 10000 ℃ above, can undertake very imperceptible heat fuses (Melting) reach aerification (Vaporization) treatment, the machinery that won't affect adjacent area data and hot magnetism are qualitative. (3) blame contacts treatment, won't pollute material and the wear and tear that won't cause clamping apparatus and damaged, easy automation is machined. (4) but treatment of by transparent body. (5) does not need vacuum, need not defend X is smooth, device is consequently handier, and exercise sex is good. (6) is comfortable choose treatment condition, the tiny aperture treatment that can have metallic stuff, accurate frit is received, accurate cut and finishing exceed alloy to synthesize, vacuum is splashed shoot reach vacuum plated film to wait. (7) besides processing metallic work, yi Ke processes the metalloid data such as lumber, pottery and porcelain, plastic, paper. The sort of 5 laser, feature and applied exemple note: (A) monochromatic sex (B) unisonant sex (C) gets together optical rotation the applied domain of 6 laser (1) is measured (A) is linear and fiducial (device of B) range finding (C) is underlined (2) is measured (the length with accurate A) determines (B) lidar (C) Bo Le tachometer (D) blemish is diagnosed (Accurate element laser beam machining (the English that 1) whats is meant by accurate element laser to allow molecular report to shoot is Excimer Laser, excimer is the composition of place of before half character of Excited Dimer English, its Chinese meaning is the double atomic gas that is aroused. The aeriform group of accurate element laser becomes inert gase atom, wait like He, Ne, Ar, Kr as more lively as chemistry haloid (Halogen) is atomic, wait like F, Cl, Br, the ultraviolet light that issues high power is stimulated with discharge after interblend closes. (The laser of characteristic accurate element of laser of 2) accurate element outputs ultraviolet light, its photon energy (Photon Energy) wavelengh is (157nm~351nm) , destroy the chemical bond that laser illuminate manages directly with short wavelengh, namely after workpiece absorbs the accurate element laser of short wavelengh, the key of material interior the knot is interrupted directly and destroy completely, with the fused, aerification of traditional laser treatment differs. The absorption of major work material deepness amount to 100 dust (Angstrom 10-10m) because of this each pulse (Pulse) move except deepness μ M the following workpiece material surface layer, and the workpiece material that redundant laser energy is moved to divide is taken away, hot influence area is lesser, so accurate element laser beam machining can regard cold working as. (Wavelengh of sort of gas of the sort of the accurate element laser with important 3) and its wavelengh (Nm) the application of laser of accurate element of F2 157 ArF 193 KrCl 222 KrF 248 XeCl 308 XeF 351 (4) allows molecular laser to took the place of 1970 already research and development is successful, already applied in scientific research and industrial application respect widely at present, be like bore, mark (Marking) , deposit of gas phase of chemistry of finishing, laser (C.
D) , deposit of physical gas phase (P.
D) , the respect such as magnetic head and optical lens and the cleanness with silicon round brilliant, at present accurate element laser is system of personal computer cable (MEMS) relevant small production technology (LIGA) (light of Lithography + Electroforming + Micro Molding etchs + electroform + small shaping combination makes Cheng) in making Cheng replace sexual illuminant, make small component with photoetching art. The line means of memory IC interior and use wavelengh have 0.
The scale of 7 concerns, for example the laser of KrF accurate element of wavelengh 248nm can be made 0.
The memory IC of means of line of 18 μ M. If semiconductor industry wants to go to deep second micron, even the development making Cheng of Nai rice class, so the machine rate that the ultraviolet light laser with shorter wavelengh exceeds ultraviolet light laser to be applied even will be older, the ultraviolet light laser that makes small structure component however is accurate element laser normally, its price is quite high, accordingly times frequency technology produces crystal of a lot of researcher hope by means of the ultraviolet light laser with cheaper price. Use nonlinear optical (Nonlinear Optics) crystal tries solid state laser times frequency, comparative in order to get the research of ultraviolet light laser at present popular. 3 water chestnut electric machinery of Japanese give out laser of solid state of times frequency ultraviolet light at grinding 1998, use laser of infra-red smooth semiconductor as arouse illuminant, pass the ultraviolet light that times frequency crystal produces 266nm twice after times frequency, its power is 20W, for industry is at present highest level. New power (Sony) the company also grew laser of ultraviolet light of favorable balance of trade 1998, laser of green light of 532nm of department general wavelengh passes what crystal produces wavelengh 266nm after times frequency to exceed ultraviolet light, service life achieves 5000 hours. 8 laser sweep a law (Laser Broom Technique) current chemical solution cleans a law cannot complete purify 0.
25 μ M, 0.
18 μ M makes Cheng the following place produce Yu Liu to be in chip is apparently atomic. The principle that laser sweeps a technology is the irradiation of accurate element laser that uses wavelengh 248nm, need the face that washs chip, join proper reaction gas, criterion contaminant can produce actinic reaction with gas (Photo Chemical Reaction) , make intermediate product then and volatilize. Principle of range finding of triangle of laser of technology of range finding of 9 laser triangle (if plan institute is shown) it is by means of umbriferous point light source comes wait for the surface that measure content and triangle to go out in order to calculate need the space that measures content and illuminant, wait for measure content to be when B1, its apparently scattering or reflex are become on displacement detector like C1, manage together, should wait for measure content to be when B2, into resemble be C2 to be able to be figured by the distance between C1-C2 displacement measures D. This kind of method is at present commonly used the IC in exact pattern course of study or semiconductor electron course of study, SMT circuit board detect. Law of laser triangle range finding